Factors Influencing Household Income in Poor Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh
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The paper examines the influence of socio-economic factors on monthly total household income in poor urban slum settlements in four secondary cities of Bangladesh (i.e., Tongi, Jessore, Mymensingh and Dinajpur) based on a census survey of 33,049 households using a Tobit model. Results reveal that all levels of education, public sector employment, business, self-employment, homestead land ownership, family size, female occupation and urban agriculture significantly increases income whereas households with female heads, unemployed heads and children under 5 earn significantly less income. Migrant households do not earn significantly less than the local residents. Geographical variation exist as income is significantly higher in Tongi, Jessore and Mymensingh compared to Dinajpur. Policy implications include investments in higher education, expansion of employment opportunities in the public sector, business and self-employment activities, promotion of urban agriculture and targeted programs to enhance women’s employment in order to raise income of these poor urban households.
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