Much academic research has studied the factors that increase adoption of online government services. However, the study areas have generally been relatively simple transactional environments focussed on specific consumer roles, and where "the computer can decide". However, this is not representative of all government services: many off-line services involve multiple government organisations or departments. Some services are used by a large range of different stakeholders who have different expectations and experiences of the administrative process concerned. Some require non-numeric elements to process the transaction. Some even involve humans to make a decision. All of these factors increase the complexity of supporting such services online and there is little literature either in the areas of stakeholder theory or technology adoption that examines how such services can be successfully deployed. This research addresses this void in the literature through an exploratory case study of the online planning application service in the UK as provided by the Planning Portal. A mixed methodology, both multi-phase and emergent, has been used to gather and analyse both qualitative and quantitative data to investigate how a single online service can successfully support a wide range of different stakeholders, what factors impact on uptake amongst those diverse stakeholder groups and how the service manages its relationships with stakeholders to ensure all are supported by the service. The pivotal complexities added by visual elements in the planning application and determination process, and by the central-local government interaction that is integral to the online planning service, are explored. The findings suggest that such a complex service can be very successful, but there are barriers outside the service provider's control that may ultimately affect the full provision of an end-to-end online service. Quantitative findings also suggest that there are factors other than those in the current models of technology adoption that may affect a more subjective and visually dependent service. This novel study of a distinctively complex and visual service provides insights that will be, and have already been, of use to real-world practitioners in supporting and developing complex online services

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