The aim of the current study was to determine the organic iron (Fe) requirements of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). A total number of four experiments have been carried out each one for 12 weeks, in order to address and extend the knowledge on nutritional issues and challenges related with the culture of the gilthead sea bream in the Greek aquaculture industry and therefore enhance the fish health status under intensive culture conditions. These experiments aimed to determine the optimum level of organic Fe supplemented in commercial type diets of sea bream, the comparison between an organic Fe form and two inorganic Fe forms added in the diet of the fish, the effect of supplemented organic Fe on sea bream species exposed to oxygen deprivation stressors related to poor aquaculture husbandry practices and finally the interaction of organic Fe in the diet of sea bream with various levels of other trace minerals (Zn, Cu). The parameters evaluated were the growth performance of the fish, the Fe concentration in three selected tissues (the spleen, the liver and the muscle), the haematological status of the fish (the haematocrit, the red blood cell count, and the haemoglobin) and both the humoral and cellular immunology of the fish (the antibacterial activity of serum and the respiratory burst respectively). 150 mg/Kg of added organic Fe appears to be the recommended level as well as the minimum amount on fish exposed to overstocking conditions. The comparison between the two inorganic Fe forms (Ferrous Sulphate and Ferrous Carbonate) added in the diets show no significant effect on the fish. While, the fish fed the diets with 150 mg/Kg organic Fe and Cu levels lower that 5 mg/Kg had higher Hb values.

Document Type


Publication Date