Taxonomy underpins biological research, names are needed for comparative analysis, conservation status, and even public communication. Yet many species remain undescribed and are therefore vulnerable and unprotected. Whilst the true number of species is unknown, the underrepresented taxonomic groups and geographical regions are, with Neotropical Staphylinidae being amongst the most poorly represented. Barcoding initiatives highlight taxa in need of revision and act as effective estimators of biodiversity using Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) as prospective species. This study acts as a preliminary review of a Staphylinid genus (the Anotylus) in Costa Rica as they have not been revised using modern taxonomy. Here using an integrative taxonomic framework utilising simple morphometric characters and the COI gene, I identified five distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs). With only two species of Anotylus formally identified in Costa Rica this presents a significant increase in the believed biodiversity of the genus within the region. This will ultimately only increase as more comprehensive characteristics are used that facilitate formal species’ descriptions, likely further subdividing the ESU’s into putative species. These subdivisions may already be evidenced by a BIN within this study that possessed distinct morphological variation with genetic support. Despite being unable to differentiate individuals to a species level, there is still an increase to the previously believed biodiversity of Costa Rican Anotylus. Here barcoding demonstrates its effectiveness as a simple biodiversity estimator whilst also displaying its use as a primer for integrative taxonomic studies using BINs as species hypotheses. The easy identification of taxa for review may help mitigate the taxonomic impediment and usher in a wave of rapid species’ descriptions, especially in historically overlooked taxa like the Staphylinidae. This in turn better informs conservation management strategies and our understanding of biological processes.

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License