Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don is the most widely studied plant because of its high pharmacological value. In vitro culture uses various plant parts such as leaves, nodes, internodes and roots for inducing callus and subsequent plant regeneration in C. roseus. However, till now, little work has been conducted on anther tissue using plant tissue culture techniques. Therefore, the aim of this work is to establish a protocol for in vitro induction of callus by utilizing anthers as explants in MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of PGRs. The best callusing medium contains high α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and low kinetin (Kn) concentrations showing a callusing frequency of 86.6%. SEM–EDX analysis was carried out to compare the elemental distribution on the surfaces of anther and anther-derived calli, and the two were noted to be nearly identical in their elemental composition. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of methanol extracts of anther and anther-derived calli was conducted, which revealed the presence of a wide range of phytocompounds. Some of them are ajmalicine, vindolinine, coronaridine, squalene, pleiocarpamine, stigmasterol, etc. More importantly, about 17 compounds are exclusively present in anther-derived callus (not in anther) of Catharanthus. The ploidy status of anther-derived callus was examined via flow cytometry (FCM), and it was estimated to be 0.76 pg, showing the haploid nature of callus. The present work therefore represents an efficient way to produce high-value medicinal compounds from anther callus in a lesser period of time on a larger scale.



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School of Biological and Marine Sciences