ORCID

Abstract

The bio-constituents of medicinal plants are greatly influenced by the environmental conditions and growing seasons. This study aimed to uncover the presence of different metabolites and to investigate the biological properties of the leaves of Mangifera indica during summer and winter seasons. The extract of M. indica leaves for summer and winter using different solvent extracts (hexane, chloroform, and methanol) showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, phytosterol, saponins, steroids, and carbohydrates. Antibacterial activity of the methanolic leaf extracts for summer and winter were evaluated against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). For S. aureus (ATTC 43300), the summer crude extract displayed lower antibacterial activity than the control streptomycin, with zones of inhibition of 14.17 and 16.67 mm, respectively. Winter extracts had a zone of inhibition of 12 mm, while streptomycin had a 13.67 mm zone of inhibition. For E. coli (ATCC 25922), the summer crude extract displayed higher antibacterial activity than the control gentamycin, with zones of inhibition of 18.05 and 17.5 mm, respectively. The winter extracts had a zone of inhibition of 8.5 mm, while gentamycin had a 14.5 mm zone of inhibition. Antibacterial screening showed positive results for both seasons; however, summer extracts showed a more potent effect. The antioxidant screening was conducted using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Potent radical scavenging activity was exhibited for both summer and winter seasons with hexane and methanolic extracts for summer (IC50 of 19.53 μg/mL and 12.71 μg/mL, respectively) and winter (22.32 μg/mL and 14.35 μg/mL, respectively) in comparison to the control ascorbic acid, which produced an IC50 of 3.20 μg/mL. The summer leaf extracts had better radical scavenging IC50 capacity than winter extracts. In conclusion, hexane and methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activity, while methanolic extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Further studies are required against more strains of bacteria and cancer cell lines to test for potency.

DOI

10.3390/horticulturae8100909

Publication Date

2022-09-28

Publication Title

Horticulturae

Volume

8

Issue

10

Embargo Period

2022-11-01

Organisational Unit

School of Biological and Marine Sciences

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